If you are interested in the economics of catfish farming, you may want to learn more about the winter season and how it affects catfish production. The winter season is commonly thought to be a difficult time for catfish because they spend a large part of the year underwater, uninterested in feeding. However, a new study suggests that the winter season may not be as bad for catfish as you think. Researchers from the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff conducted a two-year study on the topic. The research team led by Carole Engle, director of the Aquaculture/Fisheries Center, worked to understand the economics of catfish production and the effect of the winter season on catfish feed.
Water quality stress
Water quality stress can have serious consequences for fish production. High levels of carbon dioxide reduce the weight and size of catfish and tilapia. In one study, the concentration of carbon dioxide decreased the weight of tilapia by 4.3 g per unit change. In another study, the concentration of carbon dioxide reduced the size of catfish by 0.923 cm. Emokaro et al. state that carbon dioxide rarely causes direct toxicity to fish, but that fish suffocate when CO2 levels are high. Conversely, when CO2 levels are low, fish seem unaffected. 마케팅회사
These findings indicate that the relationship between water quality stress and catfish mortality is not simple. Catfish are sensitive to seasonal variations and require proper management. It is essential to minimize the amount of time between stocking and harvesting. Harvesting the fish as soon as they are ready reduces losses due to certain diseases and stresses. Also, it is important to limit the amount of time fingerlings spend in the pond.
In the winter season, temperatures may drop below 55 degrees. In this case, feed your catfish every other day. The disease, known as enteric septicemia, is more severe and can cause mortality. The disease is often exacerbated by chemical treatment, handling stress, and poor water quality. It typically starts in the enteric portion of the fish’s body, causing hemorrhagic enteritis and measles-like lesions. It may also cause lesions in the liver, resulting in necrosis, abcessation, or hemorrhagic lesions.
Disease prevention is essential for maintaining optimum water quality. Proper disinfection is important to destroy any fungi that are present in the water. Two to three times of disinfection with a 20-day interval is recommended. Disinfection is also recommended during rearing. Sodium hypochloride with 2% active chlorine or formaldehyde solution are good disinfectants.
In the study, researchers examined the effects of predators on catfish populations in two lakes. In one lake, where the apex predator was absent, the catfish population exhibited decreased activity. In the other lake, the numbers of catfish were comparable despite the presence of a large number of predators.
Catfish are voracious feeders and often eat other fish. They are active mostly at night and consume a wide variety of prey. Their feeding habits are indiscriminate, especially in densely populated drying pools. They are also vulnerable to a variety of predators, including cars, which can hit them during migration.
When the weather changes in the fall, catfish become active and start feeding. When the temperature starts to drop, catfish will move to the mouth of a stream or river, where they can stay cool. This behavior lasts a few days or weeks depending on the water temperature. When the water temperature starts to drop again, catfish will begin to move away from the current.
The wind is another factor that affects where the catfish feed. It can affect water temperature and visibility, which is important for predators. Additionally, clouds can block moonlight, which the catfish need for feeding.
The long-term diet of pike and catfish is known to be highly influenced by prey composition and their food source. The relative contribution of semiaquatic and aquatic prey to the diets of these two species has been studied using the SIAR package. The input data for the model include the d13C and d15N values of individual fins and the mean + SD of muscle tissue, with commonly accepted trophic fractionation corrections of 0.4 + 1.3% for d13C and 3.4 + 1.0% for d15N61.
The effects of temperature on food source during winter season were compared in two different bodies of water. Temperatures above normal ranges induced higher voluntary food intake, while temperature below optimal ranges decreased voluntary food intake. These results suggest that catfish use primarily semiaquatic vertebrates as their food source during winter season. 병원광고